INTAS Periodic Report on INFRASTRUCTURE ACTION PROJECT
Ref. No 03-70-567
Infrastructure Actions Call 2004
Title: Recovering the CIS optical telescope cooperation for coordinated observations of non-stationary and transient space objects
INTAS Ref. No 03-70-567
June 1, 2002
Prof. Victor Abalakin, Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoe Chaussee, 65/1, St.-Petersburg, 196140, Russia, phone: 7(812)723-49-00, e-mail: email@example.com
Person in charge of Management:
Mr. Igor Molotov, Smolnaya str. 63-185, Moscow, 125445, Russia, phone: 7 (095) 152-95-94, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Central Astronomical Observatory (CAO) at Pulkovo, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoe Chaussee, 65/1, St.-Petersburg, 196140, Russia, Prof. Victor Abalakin, email@example.com
Scientific-research Institute "Crimean Astrophysical Observatory" (CrAO), MiCIStry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Nauchny, 98409, Crimea, Ukraine, the team leader is Mr. Vasilij Rumyantsev, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Kazbegi ave, 2a, Tbilisi, 99532, Georgia, the team leader is Prof. Rolan Kiladze, email@example.com
Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Astronomicheskaya street, 33, Tashkent, 700052, Uzbekistan, the team leader is Dr. Mansur Ibrahimov, firstname.lastname@example.org
Institute of Astronomy, Karazin Kharkiv National University, Sumska street, 35, Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine, the team leader is Prof. Dmitrij Lupishko, email@example.com
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIA) of Russian Academy of Sciences
(using grant of Russian MiCIStry of Education and Science), Miusskaya square, 4,
Moscow, 125047, Russia, the team leader is Prof. Ephraim L. Akim, firstname.lastname@example.org
Other participating institutions:
Space Research Institute (IKI) of RAS, Moscow, Russia, Dr. Alexei Pozanenko, Ussuriysk Astrophysical Observatory (UAO), Far East Branch of RAS, Ussuriysk, Russia, Dr. Gennadiy Kornienko, Astronomical Observatory (OAO) of Mechnikov Odessa National University, Odessa, Ukraine, Mr. Peter Sukhov.
Periodic report due: from June 2005 through December 2005
Submission date of this report:
There was a significant lag in the NIS countries in ground-based astronomical researches. The former Soviet Union network of optical stations and observatories was disintegrated. The observations were no more carried out by the observatories due to the absence of optical detectors, while the telescopes in most observatories are in good condition. This circumstance had a negative influence on the whole world science as well. Like the well-known observational "Pacific gap", the territory of CIS countries could be assumed as a large "CIS gap" on the world map of optical observations for many scientific fields that are vitally important for human civilization.
The Infrastructure Action is aiming at supporting the telescopes of 7 observatories in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and Uzbekistan to develop the collaborative observations of space debris, asteroids and Gamma-Ray Bursts afterglow in the form of the Pulkovo Cooperation of Optical Observers (PulCOO). The scientific research, planning and technical groups should be created to manage the PulCOO activities. The involved optical instruments should be refurbished and equipped with modern CCD-cameras, and supplied with sets of astronomic software. The runs of test observations should demonstrate the capabilities of the PulCOO to perform the high-level researches in optical astronomy. After finishing of the Infrastructure Action, the telescope cooperation can start the regular coordinated observations as a centre for joint multi-access use.
1.1. Overview of Research Activities / Conformance with the Work Programme
The tasks were mainly carried out in accordance with the work programme (WP).
Task 1. - Forming the PulCOO administrative structures. This task is mostly fulfilled. The theme of Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers (PulCOO) was approved by the CAO Scientific Council as a part of Prof. Abalakin's sector work. A scientific officer (Mr. Vladimir Titenko) was specially appointed in CO to prepare the ephemerides for PulCOO telescopes and to process the obtained measurements. The Committee for the allocation and scheduling of the observation time is forming the scientific programs of the PulCOO consisting of from the representatives of Pulkovo Observatory (in the asteroids part), KIA (in the space debris part), IKI (in the GRB afterglow part). The technical group for planning and performing the technical and training activities of the PulCOO was organized in CAO, CO (CR1 and CR4 teams refused to participate in this activity).
Task 2. - Purchasing the CCD-cameras. This task is fulfilled in a greater extent than it was planned. The 6 CCD-cameras (one camera beyond of the WP) are as follows: four cameras of the type FLI IMG-1001E, grade 1, two cameras of the type FLI IMG-6303E, grade 1; three CFW-1 five-position color filter wheels; three sets of the 48 mm BVRI filters; one digital focuser and 6 GPS-receivers were purchased during the first half of the project period. This work was performed jointly by CO and IKI. The USA FLI Company was chosen to purchase the CCD-cameras for the Project. The negotiations were carried out with the FLI Company and the 12% discount with respect to the price-list was obtained for the first three CCD-cameras, and the 15% discount for next purchasing (in this case, cameras are provided with no cables and power supplies). Such discount allowed to purchase the additional camera FLI IMG-1001E. It should be noted that the FLI Company improved the grade of the three ordered cameras without extra money.
Task 3. - Preparing the telescopes. This task is fulfilled mostly by efforts of all project participating teams. The draughts of the CCD-cameras were received from the FLI Company and distributed among the project teams to prepare connecting frames. The following telescopes were prepared for installation of the CCD-cameras: the ZTSh 2.6-m telescope in Nauchny (CR1), the Zeiss-600 telescope in Nauchny (CR1) (the CCD-camera is used at the two telescopes in turn), the Zeiss-600 telescope on Maidanak (CR3), the Zeiss double astrograph in Ussuriysk (UAO), the 64-cm AT-64 telescope in Nauchny (CR1), the 70-cm AZT-8 telescope at Chuguev (CR4), the 23-cm expeditionary astrograph in Tarija, Bolivia (CO). The following two new telescopes were put into operation: the 60-cm RK-600 telescope in Mayaki (OAO) and the 22-cm SR-220 telescope in Pulkovo (CO). The works on upgrading the 70-cm Maxutov telescope (CR2) and the 50-cm MTM-500 telescope (CO) were not completed, therefore, the Zeiss double astrograph in Abastumani (CR2) and the 32-cm ZA-320 telescope in Pulkovo (CO) were prepared for installation of a CCD-camera. (The table 1 showing project telescopes performances is given in Annex 1.)
Task 4. - Receiving and installing the CCD-cameras. This task is fulfilled by efforts of all project teams. 6 CCD-cameras were purchased and transferred from USA to Russia step by step (by CO and IKI). 5 CCD-cameras were tested in Pulkovo by the technical group and completed with cables, power supplies and GPS-receivers (these are used for attachment of time registrations of the obtained CCD frames to the precise time-scales). One camera, which worked incorrectly during the test in Pulkovo, was returned back to the FLI Company, being repaired and then transferred to Russia again. 5 CCD-cameras were brought to the PulCOO observatories (CO, CR1, CR2, CR3, UAO), and installed on the following telescopes: the 2.6-m ZTSh telescope (together with the digital focuser and the filter wheel) or the 60-cm Zeiss-600 telescope in Nauchny (CR1), the 32-cm ZA-320 telescope (together with the filter wheel) in Pulkovo (CO), the 60-cm Zeiss-600 telescope (together with the filter wheel) on Maidanak (CR3), the 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph in Ussuriysk (UAO), the 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph in Abastumani (CR2). Also the CCD-camera destined for the ZA-320 telescope was temporarily installed on the 23-cm expeditionary astrograph in Tarija, Bolivia, being used during the CO expedition to this former optical observation station of Pulkovo observatory. (The pictures of CCD-cameras installed on the telescopes may be seen in Annex 1.)
Task 5. - Preparing and distributing the astronomical software sets. This task is mostly fulfilled by CO. The new software package was designed for simultaneous work with the CCD-camera and colour filter wheel, the software set APEX II was developed for CCD frame processing (selection of the moving objects, the astrometrical reduction and the estimation of the object brightness), and these both packages were attached to CCD-cameras transferred to project teams, except the CR1 team which developed its own software set. First, it was planned that the exact software set for CCD frame reduction will be distributed as compiled by CR1, but the CR1 team decided not to do so. Therefore, the necessary software package was compiled at, and distributed by, the CO. Also CO prepared the software set for the asteroid orbit determinations and the ephemeride computations, and for the fast identification of the observed asteroids (under INTAS project 2001-0669) and as the first step, transferred it to the CR2 team.
Task 6. - Training and test observations. This task is fulfilled by efforts of the all project participating teams. The representatives of CR2, CR3, UAO, OAO and of Tarija optical station were invited to Pulkovo observatory for training courses to get acquainted with CCD-cameras, filter wheels, and GPS-receivers, to learn the usage of the astronomical software sets, the strategy of observations for various project goals, the usage of ephemerides, and methods of the observation data reduction. Moreover, the representatives of CO have visited the observation sites on Maidanak, at Abastumani and Tarija to make arrangements for the first series of trial observations. All project teams (CAO-CR4, UAO, OAO, SRI) participated in the test observations for the project goals that were carried out to demonstrate the capabilities of the PulCOO to perform the high-level optical astronomy investigations. A rich scientific output was obtained from these test observations.
1.2. Scientific results.
1.2.1. The Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers (PulCOO) was formed for observations of space debris, asteroids and GRB-afterglows. The 6 CCD-cameras (together with 6 GPS-receiver providing for the precise time scale, 3 filter wheels and one digital focuser) were purchased and 5 of them were installed on the following telescopes: the 2.6-m ZTSh telescope (this camera is shared by the 60-cm Zeiss-600 telescope and the 22-cm SR-220 telescope) in Nauchny; the 32-cm ZA-320 telescope in Pulkovo (this camera was working 40 days with the 23-cm expeditionary astrograph in Tarija, Bolivia), the 60-cm Zeiss-600 telescope on Maidanak, the 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph in Ussuriysk and the 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph in Abastumani. Two new telescopes (the 60-cm RK-600 telescope in Mayaki and the 22-cm SR-220 telescope in Nauchny) were put into operation, the work on the third telescope, the 50-cm MTM-500 telescope, is continuing. The software package destined to working with the FLI CCD-cameras and filter wheels, and to performing the CCD frames reduction was compiled by the CAO team and distributed among other project teams. The scientific, planning and technical groups from the project team representatives were organized to manage the PulCOO activities that allowed to arrange the test, training and scientific observations by use of the following telescopes: the 2.6-m ZTSh, the 60-cm Zeiss-600 and the 22-cm SR-220 in Nauchny (CR1), the 32-cm ZA-320, the 22-cm SR-22 in Pulkovo and the 23-cm expeditionary astrograph in Tarija (CO), the 60-cm Zeiss-600 on Maidanak (CR3), the 70-cm AZT-8 in Chuguev (CR4), the 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph in Ussuriysk (UAO), the 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph in Abastumani (CR2), 60-cm RK-600 in Mayaki (OAO).
So, this optical network that has unique combination of telescopes of various kind (the ones with large field of view for searching purposes, the medium-size ones for tracking, photometry and polarization observations, and the second largest telescope for deep-space surveys in the NIS) allows to the CCD-camera scientists to effectively solve the many fundamental and applied problems on the modern level. In the same time, it is an important contribution to the international collaboration of optical observatories that was confirmed by the performed work.
1.2.2. The first actions in the framework of the PulCOO project contributed to a greater development of the practical collaboration with European researchers of the space debris. The works were carried out in two main directions:
searching for, and tracking of large geostationary objects (with brightness more than the 15th stellar magnitude) which are absent from the lists of orbital elements publicly distributed by NASA and ESA; the PulCOO optical stations Pulkovo, Mayaki, Nauchny, Abastumani, Ussuriysk, Tarija as well as the European Zimmerwald observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern and observatories of the PIMS network working under the support of Observatory Sciences, Ltd. participated successfully in observation campaigns.
pioneer attempts of searching for, and long-term tracking of small-sized fragments (with brightness fainter than the 15th stellar magnitude) of space debris in geostationary area, the PulCOO optical stations Nauchny and Maidanak as well as the European observatories Zimmerwald and Tenerife (an observatory of the European Space Agency) having participated in these operations.
These observations allowed to find about 170 geostationary objects that are absent in the publicly distributed orbital data and to determine their orbital elements. This constitutes 15% of the known population of geostationary objects. The brightness of 120 objects is greater than the 15th stellar magnitude and about 50 objects are fainter than the 15th stellar magnitude. In common, almost 60,000 measurements, including 6,000 measurements of small fragments were put into database of the Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences on collection, processing and analysis of the space debris information. The collaboration of PulCOO with European observatories is able to practically observe the entire geostationary orbit as a whole. It is planned that 120 brighter objects will for the first time be included together with their orbital parameters into the next 8th Issue of Classification of Geosynchronous objects annually prepared by the ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany. For the first time in the world 21 geostationary fragments were observed during the time interval longer than 1 night that allowed to follow their orbital evolution and to determine the influence of the solar radiation pressure on change of orbital parameters. 6 fragments (including one fragment with a size of about 15 cm) were observed during time intervals of 84 through 356 days that confirms the principal possibility of cataloguing of objects of such kind. The supposed source of their origin for several fragments was determined on the basis of likeness of the fragment orbit and of the "parental object" orbit. The existence of "clouds" of fragments was confirmed which appeared after destruction of the Ekran-2 (10365/77092A) and the Ekran-4 (11561/79087A) artificial Earth satellites, and one from the hulls of the rockets Titan 3C Transtage (03432/68081E). Also the fragments of two other rocket hulls Titan 3C Transtage (12371/81025C and 10002/77034C) were discovered. The search for fragments at Nauchny, Zimmerwald and Tenerife was organized using the so-called "barrier" method, developed at the Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo under INTAS 2001-0669 project.
1.2.3. The observations with the telescopes ZA-320 in Pulkovo (CO) and AZT-8 in Chuguev (CR4) were mainly devoted to the research of asteroids. The asteroids were also observed in part time with the Zeiss-600 telescope on Maidanak (CR3) and with the ZTSh telescope in Nauchny (CR1). By using the ZA-320 telescope 3,000 observations were made of 500 celestial bodies, including 270 near-Earth asteroids (NEA) and 5 comets. The precision of measurements was of 0.1"-0.5". All observations were regularly sent to the Minor Planets Center (MPC). Now the database of the MPC contains about 5300 NEA measurements made with the ZA-320 telescope in Pulkovo. According to the NEODys database (http://newton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/neodys/neoibo) rating the Pulkovo observatory has moved during the project period from the 27th place to the 17th (and from the 65th one to 27th during the INTAS 2001-0669 project period). Currently Pulkovo Observatory is the CIS leader in the NEA observations and occupies the 17th place in the world rating. The Pulkovo observation program included NEAs from so-called "Critical MPC List", asteroids which were recently discovered, double asteroids, asteroids which were earlier comets, close and visible approaches of asteroids, asteroids named after Pulkovo astronomers, and occultations of stars by asteroids. The Pulkovo asteroid researches are described on the special Internet page http://neopage.nm.ru, which was created under INTAS2001-0669 project. Moreover, the CO team obtained 84 measurements of two double asteroids, 81 measurements of 5 NEA using the Zeiss-600 telescope on Maidanak. The CR3 team obtained 3500 photometric measurements of brightness of the main-belt asteroids using the Zeiss-600 telescope with the BVRI filters. 5 faint NEAs were observed with the 2.6 m ZTSh telescope in Nauchny (CR1). AZT-8 in Chuguev carried out photometry (in BVRI filters) and polarization measurements of 15 main-belt asteroids and 4 NEA during 38 nights using the ST-6 CCD-camera and one-channel photoelectric photometer-polarimeter. Typical errors of a single asteroid measurement at different nights were about 0.01-0.03 mag RMS depending on asteroid brightness. Obtained lightcurves, absolute magnitudes and color indexes of asteroids will be included in the international databases such as "Asteroid Photometric Catalogue" and "Planetary Data System". The three-night polarization observations of NEA 1992 UY4 allowed to determine asteroid phase angle α, measured polarization degree P and position angle of polarization plane Θ, position angle of the scattering plane χ, polarization degree and position angle of polarization in the coordinate system connected with the scattering plane Pr and Θr , respectively. The polarization slope h = 0.32±0.06 of the linear part of polarization phase curve and inversion angle αinv= 17.8±1.0 deg are obtained for NEA 100085 1992 UY4 which allowed to determine its albedo pv= 0.06 and to classify it as a low-albedo object of the C-type. The small asteroid 11264 Claudiomaccone is discovered to be a new binary system in the Main Belt. Its determined parameters are close to the corresponding parameters of binaries among the NEAs. It is one of the smallest binaries among the main-belt asteroids (Deff=4.2 km) and its discovery is of great value for the estimation of the fraction of binary asteroids and for understanding of mechanisms of their origin. The detailed observations of another binary asteroid 76818 2000 RG79 discovered before by other authors confirmed its binary nature and parameters of the system. Composition types and rotation periods are determined for 7 asteroids.
1.2.4. ZTSh, AT-64 and Zeiss-600 in Nauchny (CR1), Zeiss-600 in Maidanak (CR3), Zeiss double astrograph in Ussuriysk (UAO) participated in observation of optical Gamma-Ray Bursts afterglow. The urgent pointing of these telescopes in sky area was started after signal of GRB-detection from space gamma-ray observatories Swift, HETE, INTEGRAL.
PulCOO carried put 29 from 97 GRB events of 2005 that were detected and localized in sky sphere by spacecrafts Swift, Integral and HETE-2. And 26 events were observed PulCOO in first night after GRB detections. PulCOO telescopes detected 13 events of GRB optical afterglows from 39 such detections around the worlds. This displayed the high performances of PulCOO in parts of geographical distribution of observatories and technical readiness of telescopes. It was obtained 18 evaluations of upper limit of GRB optical afterglows brightness. The detailed research of GRB050824 was arranged during 3 months.
Publications without INTAS-CIS co-authorship of the project teams:
Abstracts in proceedings:
1. Molotov I., Tuccari G., Konovalenko A., Nechayeva M., Abalakin V., Kiladze R., Titenko V., Khutorovsky Z., Agapov V., Volvach A., Deviatkin A., Sochilina A., Guseva I., Liu Xiang, Gorchenkov Yu. The Pulkovo cooperation program for radar and optical observations of space objects. Abstracts of Sixth US-Russian Space Surveillance Workshop, Edited by P. K. Seidelmann and V.K. Abalakin, August 22-26, 2005, Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, St.-Petersburg, Russia, p. 25-26.
I. Molotov, A. Konovalenko, G. Tuccari, I. Falkovich, M. Nechaeva, A. Dementiev, R. Kiladze, V. Titenko, A. Agapov, V. Stepanyants, Z. Khutorovsky, S. Sukhanov, Yu. Burtsev, O. Fedorov, V. Abrosimov, A. Volvach, A. Deviatkin, A. Sochilina, I. Guseva, V. Abalakin, V. Vlasjuk, Liu Xiang, Yu. Gorshenkov, G. Kornienko, R. Zalles, M. Ibrahimov, P. Sukhov, I. Shmeld, V. Samodourov, S. Buttaccio, C. Nicotra, A. Pushkarev, A. Tsyukh, V. Nesteruk, A.Erofeeva, N. Marshalkina. Pulkovo Cooperation for radar and optical observations of space objects. Submitted in the Proceedings of sixth US/Russian Space Surveillance Workshop. Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo. August 22-26, 2005, 7 pages.
Molotov I., Sochilina A., Titenko V., Kuprianov V., Ibragimov F. Report "Fiting-GAO" "Observation and tracking of small-sized fragments of space debris in geostationary area, including ephemeredes support, processing and interpretation of obtained measurements with goal of compiling of faint objects catalogue" under contract No. 0479-4301/172-05 with Central research institute of Machine Building", 50 pages. In Russian.
Molotov I., Agapov V., Titenko V., Sochilina A. Report about fulfillment of program No. 102.23-E2-02-05 on carrying out of observations for searching of small-sized fragment in geostationary orbit under agreement with Lavochkin Scientific-Industrial Association, 70 pages. In Russian. CIS
Molotov I., Agapov V., Pozanenko A. Report about spending of devoted financial support of Mitry of Education and Science of Russian Federation to apparatus base of Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, 65 pages. In Russian.
INTAS 03-70-567 and 2001-0669 allowed creating a complex for comprehensive investigations of status of technogenic pollution in GEO region. Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers (PulCOO) that joints 9 observing points around the world, center on collection, processing and analysis of information on space debris (CCPAISD) of Russian Academy of Sciences and powerful tool for dynamic analysis of orbital evolution of the GEO-objects and their fragments on long-term intervals - LAPLACE analytical motion theory with model of explosions. The close collaboration with ESOC in field of space debris observations was started. The European observatories are observed with ephemeredes calculated by CO and KIA, their measurements are inputted into CCPAISD. From other side, the measurements of PulCOO stations after analyzing at CCPAISD will be used in next Issue 8th of Classification of Geosynchronous objects annually prepared by ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany. And already there is an interest to collaborate with project cooperation from Roscosmos, ESOC and Chinese Academy of Science (Space Environment Prediction Center). First two small contracts on searching the small GEO-fragments were signed of Pulkovo Observatory with Central Scientific-Research Institute of Machine Building and Lavochkin Scientific-Industrial Association in 2005. Ussuriysk optical station participated in ground support network during launching and further orbital evolutions of the Express-AM3 geostationary satellite. The order for measurements is now discussed for two future French high-elliptical satellites of Express series. This complex will try to continue the works when the INTAS project finishing. The optical observations already are carried routinely.
The scientific infrastructures - PulCOO represents significant observing potential for the CIS countries. The quantity of the CIS CCD-equipped-telescopes was increased more than two times which will have a great impact on science in the CIS (already in 2005 the PulCOO telescopes detected 13 events of Gamma-ray-burst optical afterglows out of 39 such detections made worldwide). The important field of applications of the project results is the asteroid hazard problem which unfortunately did not attract a great interest of financial foundation now (Pulkovo Observatory is now the CIS leader in the NEA observations and occupies the 17th place in the world rating among a few hundred observatories).
The project was coordinated by the project coordinator Prof. Victor Abalakin with assistance of scientific technical manager Mr. Igor Molotov (CO). The project scientific activities were managed by the scientific group of PulCOO consisting of the representatives of CO (in the asteroid part), KIA (in the space debris part), IKI (in the GRB afterglow part) with assistance of the Center for collection, processing and analysis of the space debris information of Russian Academy of Sciences. A scientist (Mr. Vladimir Titenko) was specially appointed in CO to prepare the ephemerides for PulCOO telescopes and to process the obtained measurements. The CO technical group was planning and performing the technical and training activities of the PulCOO.
2.1. Meetings and visits
In June, 2005, Mansur Ibragimov (CR3), Tatyana Dorokhova (OAO), Vladimir Kupriyanov (CO) visited Moscow for the two-day meeting with Igor Molotov (CO), Vladimir Titenko (CO), Vladimir Agapov (KIA) and Alexei Pozanenko (IKI) to discuss the project works on Maidanak (CR3) and in Mayaki (OAO).
In August, 2005, Igor Molotov (CO), Rolan Kiladze (CR2), Mansur Ibragimov (CR3), Vladimir Agapov (KIA), Alexei Pozanenko (IKI), Peter Sukhov (OAO) visited Pulkovo for two-day meeting with Victor Abalakin (CO), Alla Sochilina (CO), Alexander Deviatkin (CO), Irina Guseva (CO). Also Makhmud Gulyamov (Gissar, Tajikistan) and Valeriy Vlasjuk (Zelenchuk, North Caucasus), the representatives of other observatories which would collaborate with the PulCOO participated in the negotiations. The project activities were discussed as a whole and the stage of preparation of telescopes and their equipping with the CCD-cameras, the plans for the test and training observations as well.
In August, 2005, Thomas Schildknecht (Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and Heiner Klinkrad (European Space Operations Center of ESA) visited Pulkovo for the two-day meeting with Victor Abalakin (CO), Igor Molotov (CO), Alla Sochilina (CO), Vladimir Agapov (KIA), Rolan Kiladze (CR2), Mansur Ibragimov (CR3) to discuss the status and plans of collaboration between PulCOO and ESA, to arrange the further joint (with Zimmerwald, Tenerife, Nauchny and Maidanak) observations of small fragments on the geostationary orbit.
In September, 2005, Igor Molotov (CO) visited Simeiz observatory (CR1) for the two-day meeting with Alexander Volvach (CR1) and Igor Nikolenko (CR1) to discuss the insufficient use of the first CCD-camera on the ZTSh telescope and the Zeiss-600 telescope, the overloading of the AT-64 telescope with commercial observations, the possibility of replacement of the AT-64 telescope by the Zeiss-1000 telescope for installing the second CCD-camera of CR1.
In September, 2005, Vasilij Rumyantsev (CR1) and Vladimir Biryukov (CR1) visited Moscow for one-day meeting with Igor Molotov (CO), Vladimir Agapov (KIA) and Alexei Pozanenko (IKI) to discuss the status of participation of AT-64 in the project activities.
In September, 2005, Vladimir Kupriyanov (CO) visited Maidanak observatory (CR3), Uzbekistan, for the meeting with Mansur Ibragimov (CR3) and Anastasia Marshalkina (CR3) and for 10-day staying to arrange the test and training observations of space debris objects and asteroids with Zeiss-600 and new CCD-camera. The GPS-receiver was putted into operations. New software for CCD frame processing was installed.
In October, 2005, Irina Guseva (CAO) visited the former Pulkovo optical station in Tarija, Bolivia, to meet with Rodolfo Zalles and Olga Zalles and stayed for 35 days to clarify the status of telescopes (the last visit was in 1989) and to organize the test and training observations of the space debris with the 23-cm expeditionary astrograph equipped with the borrowed CCD-camera.
In November, 2005, Olga Zalles (Tarija, Bolivia) visited Pulkovo for the four-day training in observations and data reductions.
In November, 2005, Anna Erofeeva (UAO) visited Moscow for the one-day meeting with Igor Molotov (CO), Vladimir Titenko (CO), Alexei Pozanenko (IKI) and Vladimir Agapov (KIA) to discuss the status project works in Ussuriysk (UAO), then Anna Erofeeva visited Pulkovo for the meeting with Alla Sochilina (CO), Alexander Deviatkin (CO), Irina Guseva (CO), Victor L'vov (CO) and Vladimir Kupriyanov (CO), and for 10-day staying to learn the works with new CCD-camera, GPS-receiver and new software for CCD frames processing.
In December, 2005, Vladimir Kupriyanov (CO) visited Abastumani for the meeting with Rolan Kiladze (CR2) and for 10-day staying to install new CCD-camera at 40-cm Zeiss double astrograph and GPS-receiver, and arrange test and training observations of space debris.
In December, 2005, Igor Molotov (CO) visited Pulkovo for one-day meeting with Alla Sochilina (CO), Alexander Deviatkin (CO), Irina Guseva (CO), Victor L'vov (CO), and Oleg Rusakov (CO) to discuss the status of project works on the whole, the status of observations with the ZA-320 telescope, the status of preparation of the MTM-500 telescope, and to plan the works for the second project half-year.
Number of scientists
Number of person days
West ==> East
East ==> West
West ==> West
East ==> East
Intensity of Collaboration
West <=> East
West <=> West
East <=> East
The close collaboration was achieved with:
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences
Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences
Ussuriysk Astrophysical Observatory of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
As the Work Programme was planned, the Astronomical Observatory of Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine) was included in addition into the PulCOO project, as a partner.
Also the following observatories participated in the PulCOO activities:
The Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Academy of Sciences (Zelenchuk, North Caucasus)
Gissar Observatory of the Institute of Astronomy, Academy of Sciences of Tadjikistan
The observations of the space debris on the geostationary orbit were made jointly with:
Zimmerwald observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern
Tenerife observatory of the European Space Agency
Observatory Sciences, Ltd. (PIMS observatory network, England)
2.3. Time Schedule
Up to now, the time planning is generally done in accordance with the Work Program (WP). It was done some more work than foreseen in the WP (the discount generously offered by the FLI Company allowed to purchase one CCD-camera more for the money of the Co-sponsor, and it is mounted on the new 60-cm telescope RK-600 in Mayaki (OAO). The works on the upgrade of the 70-cm Maksutov telescope (CR2) and 50-cm MTM-500 (CO) were not completed, but the teams have prepared other telescopes for the temporary use with the CCD-cameras, i.e. the Zeiss double astrograph in Abastumani (CR2), the 32-cm ZA-320 telescope in Pulkovo (CO). Two new telescopes also were put into operation - the 60-cm RK-600 telescope in Mayaki (OAO) and the 22-cm SR-220 telescope in Pulkovo (CO).
Some changes are possible by the CR1 team (a CCD-camera which will be purchased in the second half of the project period may be installed on the 1-m Zeiss-1000 telescope instead of the 64-cm AT-64 telescope).
2.4. Problem encountered
It was detected during the tests in Pulkovo that one of the purchased CCD-cameras was broken. The camera was returned in back to FLI company in USA, repaired and is now already back to Pulkovo (it will be installed in March, 2006, on the RK-600 telescope in Mayaki). This event did not result in any deviation from the WP, because one CCD-camera more was purchased due to the afore-mentioned discount of the FLI Company.
It was planned that CR1 team will form the technical group mainly, and provide all project teams with software for CCD frames processing. Unfortunately, because big loaning with commercial contract, CR1 shorten his participation in the project. Nevertheless, this serious problem not resulted any deviation from the WP, because CO formed the PulCOO technical group, elaborated necessary software, provided completing and testing of CCD-cameras and GPS-receivers, arranged training courses and expedition to project observatories for CCD-camera installing and trial observations.
AT-64 in Nauchny (CR1) was mainly used for observations of satellites under commercial contract. There is intention of commercial company to purchase for AT-64 big CCD-camera (4000x4000 pixels, 9 microns); in this case, the CCD-camera that must be purchased for AT-64 under the Infrastructure Action project may be installed at 1-m Zeiss telescope in Simeiz (CR1).
The works on upgrade of 70-cm Maxutov (CR2) and 50-cm MTM-500 (CO) were not finished, but the teams prepared other telescopes for temporary using of CCD-cameras - the Zeiss double astrograph in Abastumani (CR2), 32-cm ZA-320 in Pulkovo (CO), moreover two new telescopes were putted in operations - 60-cm RK-600 in Mayaki (OAO) and 22-cm SR-220 in Pulkovo (CO). The works on preparation of 70-cm Maxutov (CR2) and 50-cm MTM-500 (CO) will be finished in second half year of the project.
Co-operation of team Members
Transfer of funds
Transfer of goods
2.5. Action required
CR4 selected another type of the CCD-camera than it was planned earlier in WP (FLI IMG47-10 1024x1024 pixels, 13 microns, instead of FLI IMG1001E 1024x1024 pixels, 24 microns) which is more acceptable for precise photometry observations. The cost difference will be compensated by the FLI Company discount.
It is expected that a private company can provide the AT-64 telescope in Nauchny (CR1) with a larger CCD-camera for observations of satellites under commercial contracts. In this case, CO would like to install a CCD-camera which will be purchased for the INTAS money for another telescope of CR1 (the 1-m Zeiss-1000 telescope in Simeiz).
3. FINANCES (in EURO)
3.1. This grant
Name of Contractor
Individual Grants Labour Costs
Travel and Subsistence
The money was spent in accordance with WP.
Two CCD-cameras FLI IMG-6303E, grade 2 with cost of $ 9,500 each were ordered at FLI company, USA for CR2 and CR3. The FLI Company gave the 15% discount from mentioned price, and moreover, increased the class of the CCD-chip to 1 and provided two additional TEC coolers free of charge (the TEC cooler provides the CCD-chip temperature of -55°C).
3.2. Other funding
A sum of 30,000 Euro was released by Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIA) of Russian Academy of Sciences (using the grant of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science). This sum was spent for purchasing four CCD-cameras, three CFW-1 five-position color filter wheels, and three sets of the 48 mm BVRI filters for CO, CR1, UAO and OAO.
A sum of 10,000 Euro was paid to the CO by the Central Scientific-Research Institute of Machine Building and Lavochkin Scientific-Industrial Association for the analysis of the GEO fragment observation results obtained by PulCOO project participants by test and training observations. This sum was spent to purchase 6 GPS-receivers, a CCD-camera completing components (cables and power supply), for the expeditions to Tarija (Bolivia), Maidanak (Uzbekistan), Abastumani (Georgia), for travel expences of the CR3, UAO, OAO and Gissar Observatory representatives invited to the CO (Pulkovo).