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Center for Space Debris Data Collection, Processing and Analysis
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM)
Russian Academy of Sciences

4 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125047 Russia

High Geocentric Orbit Space Debris Circular No.2
20070301 H.G.O.S.D.C. 00002

Efraim L. Akim KIAM Deputy Director
Vladimir M. Agapov, Igor Ye. Molotov

Coverage period ends on Feb 28, 2007

Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics


Introduction

This circular opens new series of publications devoted to periodical summarizing of worldwide scientific activity in observations of space debris objects on high geocentric orbits (GEO, HEO and high near-circular non-GEO). Objects considered to be included into this publication are fragments (operational by nature, created in fragmentation events or in result of larger objects surface and construction deterioration due to environment conditions) having brightness fainter than 15th visual magnitude during most part of their observation time. This limit corresponds to equivalent approximately 1 m size object on geostationary orbit. It is possible that sometimes these objects can be brighter than 15th magnitude due to combination of their specific properties (surface reflectivity and attitude) and favorable observation conditions (good phase angle, high elevation etc.).

The goal of this publication is to give world scientific community imagination about the status of high geocentric orbit space debris researches and to provide most recent data for each discovered object including orbital parameters, estimated standard magnitude and estimated area-to-mass ratio value. Those data can be included into existed space debris models as well as can be used for study of long-term orbital evolution and possible origin of the objects. The Circular will also serve as some reference document for scientists and amateurs involved into those objects observations and data analysis. Operators of spacecrafts on high geocentric orbits (mainly in GEO) can use this publication in order to obtain more real description of situation around their orbital assets.

Observation planning, ephemeris support, processing and analysis of obtained data are made by researchers from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM) (Vladimir Agapov, Igor Molotov, Viktor Stepanyants, Vladimir Titenko) with invaluable help of Zakhariy Khutorovskiy (Vympel Corporation) and Vasiliy Yurasov (Scientific and Research Institute of Precise Instrument Engineering, IPIE).

All questions regarding cooperation in the joint research program for high geocentric orbit space debris studies should be sent to Prof. E. L. Akim, KIAM Deputy Director. All questions regarding observation schedule, required formats, ephemeris support, observations and orbital data processing, analysis and usage should be sent to Dr. V. M. Agapov. All questions regarding requirements for observation instruments, CCD-frames processing software, possible help in the instrument's upgrade in order to make possible participation in the research program should be sent to Dr. I. Ye. Molotov.

List of sensors

This list includes all sensors participating to the date in a joint program of observation and analysis of space debris objects on high geocentric orbits. Each sensor has own identification number assigned to it in the KIAM space objects database. Most of sensors are involved into minor planet observations as well thus having the MPC assigned identification code. But for purposes of this research program it was decided to maintain separate ID system permitting to describe all participating sensors regardless of their other research programs involvement. Coordinates of sensors are given for reference purposes only and shouldn't be used in real observation processing. In the column "Instrument" common name, aperture (d, mm) and focal length (f, mm) of each instrument are given.

The list will be updated each time new sensor will send observations for studied objects.

Table 1. List of participating sensors

Ref. ID Longitude, Latitude, Height, km Observatory/ Facility Instrument
10003 100.919 E 51.622 N 1.998 Mondy AZT-14
10010 41.432 E 43.657 N 2.070 Arhyz Zeiss-600 d600/f7500
10012 42.499 E 43.276 N 3.127 Terskol Zeiss-2000 d2000/f16000
10016 30.273 E 46.397 N 0.010 Mayaki RC-600 d600/f4800
10018 33.163 E 45.219 N 0.010 Yevpatoriya AZT-8 d700/f2800
10019 33.997 E 44.403 N 0.340 CrAO/Simeiz Zeiss-1000
10031 34.016 E 44.726 N 0.585 CrAO/Nauchnyi AT-64 d640/f900
10041 66.896 E 38.673 N 2.593 Maidanak Zeiss-600 d600/f7500
10042 41.443 E 43.649 N 2.059 SAO/Arhyz Zeiss-1000 d1000
10071 64.624 W 21.596 S 1.865 Tarija Zeiss-600 d600/f7500
10102 100.920 E 51.622 N 2.000 Mondy Zeiss-600 d600/f7500
10103 100.919 E 51.617 N 2.025 Mondy AZT-33IK d1500/f30000
10191 7.465 E 46.877 N 0.951 Zimmerwald ZIMLAT-1000 d1000/f10500
10198 16.512 W 28.301 N 2.445 Teide/OGS Zeiss-1000 d1000/f13300
10531 34.016 E 44.728 N 0.595 CrAO/Nauchnyi ZTSh d2600/f10000
10532 34.017 E 44.730 N 0.595 GAISh/Nauchnyi Zeiss-600 d600/f4680
10533 34.016 E 44.726 N 0.585 CrAO/Nauchnyi PH-1 d220/f507

New objects

This section contains information on objects newly detected during period Feb 1 - Feb 28, 2007.

There are two lists. The first one contains information on objects which had been successfully recovered in follow-up observations after initial detection and one-night tracking and for which orbital data and area-to-mass ratio value had been determined with high level of confidence. The second one contains information on objects having only one night track of observations. Complete set of orbital data can't be determined for these objects. Only some orbital parameters (mainly inclination and RAAN) are determined relatively accurate. The AMR values can't be determined for these objects at all.

It should be noted that all one-night tracks had been probed to identify with all other one-night tracks and with all known objects in the KIAM database having well determined orbits (both bright and faint). It is possible that identification had negative results not only due to absence of other tracks of the same object but also due to uncertainty caused by unknown AMR value which can result in very significant orbital evolution that prevents proper correlation of one-night tracks.

Each object listed in this section has two identifiers. The first one is assigned by the observer discovered the object and the second one is assigned in the KIAM space objects database. Since widely agreed space debris identification system doesn't exists still then all provided identifiers can be assumed as temporary ones. As soon as such the agreed system will appear, all objects will be assigned with the new identifiers.

Orbital elements are referring to True Equinox Mean Equator (TEME) coordinate system. Area-to-mass ratios are calculated assuming reflectivity coefficient equal to 1.3. Orbital elements for short tracks (Table 3) have obtained in two steps. At the first one attempt to construct orbit with fixed zero value eccentricity was made. In case of great (more than 3 expected sigma) residuals of measurements the second step was applied. At this step it was allowed eccentricity to vary as well.

Table 2. List of newly discovered and confirmed objects

ID1 ID2 Date/time, UTC a, km e i, Ω, ω, u, AMR, m2/kg
43116 E07042A 23.02.2007 01:19:47.37 41902.17 0.4003278 9.636 336.583 337.895 151.674 15.7
43117 E07042C 25.02.2007 00:09:05.76 41957.60 0.1204337 7.197 72.543 287.735 95.084 5.36
43118 E07043C 22.02.2007 23:52:32.06 39190.16 0.1820799 8.666 307.992 47.078 217.440 3.76
43119 E07045A 24.02.2007 22:28:17.68 21208.78 0.6620790 3.980 83.897 262.790 88.013 0.51
43120 E07045B 21.02.2007 00:52:38.44 42959.43 0.0293707 15.783 3.059 21.100 136.847 0.51
43121 E07045D 22.02.2007 22:04:55.37 42039.97 0.0251249 13.198 6.125 303.333 112.361 1.26
43122 E07046A 23.02.2007 05:29:28.46 42776.31 0.1228077 20.423 17.492 341.119 193.000 6.11
43123 E07046B 20.02.2007 22:13:07.22 42436.61 0.0445207 14.727 358.698 21.332 82.072 0.57
43124 E07047A 18.02.2007 23:41:08.17 39977.96 0.1931110 12.935 341.458 333.873 201.732 2.73
43125 E07048A 20.02.2007 03:13:30.22 44506.46 0.0716296 18.581 31.800 334.058 106.729 0.075
43126 E07049A 23.02.2007 03:20:52.36 42359.72 0.0333152 15.172 3.744 33.545 199.869 1.89
43127 E07052D 24.02.2007 22:13:17.18 41895.83 0.1146483 15.022 354.429 322.766 172.840 4.42

Table 3. List of newly discovered objects having only single one-night track of observations

ID1 ID2 Date/time, UTC Track duration, hh:mm T, min a, km e i, Ω, ω,
46163 g070209a 09.02.2007 00:22 1289.77 39249.6 0.0687 09.357 350.25 281.36
46164 g070209b 09.02.2007 00:18 1439.68 42234.9 0.0170 08.673 320.08 191.79
46165 g070221a 21.02.2007 00:32 1386.69 41192.0 0.0193 09.573 326.99 228.81
46202 M070210 10.02.2007 00:01 1403.39 41522.0 0 14.565 352.42 239.42

New identifications

This section contains information on successful identification of newly and previously obtained single one-night tracks with each other as well as with objects having well determined orbits.

Table 4. New identifications

ID_new ID_old Observation date Observer
No new identifications in Feb 2007

Updated orbits

This section contains information on latest orbital updates for objects discovered prior to Feb 1, 2007 and observed at least once in Feb 2007 or for which the latest orbital update was not published in previous issues.

Table 5. Updated orbital parameters for objects observed in Feb 2007.

ID1 ID2 Date/time, UTC a, km e i, Ω, ω, u, AMR, m2/kg
43007 EGEO07 21.02.2007 01:24:19.91 43516.99 0.0810536 16.275 1.855 339.093 138.596 1.47
43026 EGEO26 24.02.2007 17:37:23.93 41442.30 0.1339479 9.448 335.824 334.713 162.469 4.22
43031 EGEO31 21.02.2007 01:52:31.02 40190.45 0.1226640 12.029 337.393 325.644 213.119 1.34
43032 EGEO32 25.02.2007 19:23:27.12 39456.65 0.0983238 10.775 339.235 323.215 174.442 1.24
43033 EGEO33 20.02.2007 05:02:26.98 33183.96 0.3470714 8.203 71.712 250.548 110.379 3.35
43045 EGEO45 24.02.2007 20:56:15.05 42153.77 0.1206445 9.605 330.618 61.829 160.124 1.35
43081 E06204D 21.02.2007 22:40:53.90 46829.95 0.3196119 9.442 130.462 308.640 57.290 8.56
43082 E06205C 30.01.2007 18:34:44.00 41418.56 0.0420544 13.858 345.092 254.884 91.087 2.17
43084 E06207B 20.02.2007 02:36:38.87 38318.27 0.2387650 10.335 335.252 324.710 239.060 21.9
43091 E06293A 26.02.2007 21:27:25.30 40254.02 0.2871788 5.265 126.215 204.494 62.079 11.3
43093 E06326A 17.02.2007 20:43:15.26 43579.36 0.0772247 9.175 333.297 320.910 74.172 3.02
43094 E06326C 13.02.2007 04:46:27.16 40819.92 0.2314714 7.693 300.501 18.286 228.853 11.3
43095 E06327B 22.02.2007 23:31:06.06 42517.33 0.0177595 11.573 347.047 168.909 141.087 7.58
43096 E06321D 05.02.2007 02:45:06.13 41425.57 0.0448828 8.896 321.432 288.187 226.002 1.78
43098 E06327F 11.02.2007 21:59:30.26 43310.48 0.0584218 9.667 333.875 288.675 95.913 2.61
43099 E06348B 12.02.2007 22:38:40.27 41637.11 0.0233922 10.946 336.683 333.181 179.450 0.043
43100 E06327E 17.02.2007 01:31:51.08 39990.38 0.0625730 12.515 344.745 254.418 221.265 0.40
43105 E07014A 22.02.2007 21:49:00.36 42144.54 0.2922360 17.018 329.290 340.355 184.723 12.4
43107 E07015D 23.02.2007 01:11:34.35 41430.13 0.0961760 10.302 337.452 331.511 150.898 3.78
43110 E07020C 26.02.2007 20:42:32.10 20502.03 0.6662628 7.861 0.099 3.923 143.352 0.10
43111 E07020D 21.02.2007 19:53:39.90 41847.88 0.0569197 15.967 333.569 331.507 189.958 7.51
43112 E07021A 21.02.2007 20:47:40.26 42225.06 0.0621257 10.750 337.529 287.692 91.751 1.49
43113 E07021B 22.02.2007 20:45:52.26 25032.98 0.7178264 7.734 84.319 243.209 51.607 2.19
43114 E07021D 24.02.2007 20:12:22.05 24759.16 0.7176320 4.980 73.725 276.262 73.503 7.06
43115 E07022A 24.02.2007 22:42:43.87 43703.94 0.2350845 1.863 165.040 132.958 13.576 11.51
90006 90006 19.02.2007 14:53:48.50 42192.16 0.0011531 14.446 352.366 14.391 122.134 0.0067
90008 90008 24.02.2007 17:54:20.93 42149.02 0.0041374 14.349 358.146 103.139 143.515 0.0079
90009 90009 15.02.2007 14:53:23.50 42279.19 0.0030117 14.678 359.315 352.868 126.017 0.11
90014 90014 09.02.2007 19:26:06.97 42616.24 0.0080806 14.982 353.923 110.113 31.650 0.086
90016 90016 03.02.2007 21:31:27.51 42241.41 0.0077890 13.994 332.441 185.504 69.801 2.02
90019 90019 18.02.2007 17:08:49.01 42225.34 0.0063169 14.810 359.697 24.161 81.971 0.14
90021 90021 04.02.2007 18:23:53.28 42697.38 0.0214267 14.917 359.994 346.308 23.119 0.39
90022 90022 15.02.2007 15:18:49.50 42158.75 0.0047568 14.556 358.901 226.059 111.826 0.13
90023 90023 25.02.2007 19:48:04.90 40109.92 0.0349285 12.360 355.445 34.439 153.237 1.66
90025 90025 25.02.2007 20:14:59.12 41178.79 0.0333077 10.635 333.608 6.473 174.022 0.15
90028 90028 21.02.2007 19:05:42.31 42493.37 0.0129788 14.603 359.013 61.745 72.287 0.0053
90031 90031 25.02.2007 20:01:37.11 42154.39 0.0020474 13.814 7.629 206.775 140.397 0.0075
90032 90032 25.02.2007 21:59:33.27 42153.96 0.0188489 14.281 359.027 236.221 177.884 0.0049
90034 90034 18.02.2007 19:03:50.73 24642.58 0.7154201 7.005 171.254 43.528 285.019 -
90041 90041 26.02.2007 21:05:35.43 41986.82 0.0036828 11.439 29.488 3.926 164.562 0.12
90042 90042 22.02.2007 00:20:14.52 38704.47 0.0290043 11.405 335.840 290.193 204.397 0.88
90047 90047 04.02.2007 18:43:25.42 43043.34 0.0945899 13.780 9.647 337.202 64.827 0.90
90048 90048 25.02.2007 21:11:25.17 41583.41 0.0621253 13.909 346.742 286.381 156.123 1.60
90049 90049 25.02.2007 20:32:35.14 38796.55 0.0473668 17.722 349.054 214.893 157.888 1.33
90050 90050 21.02.2007 22:05:50.06 42222.75 0.0673265 11.214 343.728 338.056 120.683 4.29
90051 90051 31.01.2007 04:40:38.99 42721.84 0.0255767 14.680 10.293 270.028 138.925 0.21
90052 90052 14.02.2007 16:56:47.09 41053.55 0.0078980 9.507 324.874 180.880 127.131 0.034
90053 90053 13.02.2007 20:31:26.77 41166.89 0.1846232 7.635 317.771 134.821 178.869 1.53

Master list of objects

The master list of objects includes all high altitude orbit faint objects discovered to the date with description of obstacles of discovery and last update of orbital information. Due to large volume of the master list it will be distributing in electronic form only.

Observation statistics

This section contains general statistics on obtained measurements.

Table 6. Distribution of measurements obtained by each facility by year of observation (as of Feb 28, 2007)

2004 2005 2006 2007 TOTAL
Nauchnyi 1240 6478 12925 3461 24104
Zimmerwald 0 597 3389 620 4606
Teide 0 624 2284 1465 4368
Maidanak 0 150 2166 931 3247
Mayaki 0 0 981 0 981
SAO 0 258 524 0 782
Terskol 0 0 475 0 475
Mondy 0 229 65 163 457
Yevpatoriya 0 0 272 0 272
Simeiz 0 0 213 0 213
Arhyz 0 0 115 11 126
Tarija 0 0 21 0 21
TOTAL 1240 8336 23410 6651 39652

8 2007.


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