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Fifth European Conference on Space Debris

30 March - 2 April 2009
ESA/ESOC
Darmstadt, Germany


ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON SPACE DEBRIS PROBLEM

Loginov. S.(1), Yakovlev. M.(1), Mikhailov. M.(1), Makarov. Y.(2),
Popkova. L.(1), Gorlov. A.(1), Bulynin.Y.(3)

 
(1) Central Research Institute of Machine Building.
(2) Federal Space Agency.
(3) JSC Information Satellite Systems Reshetnev Company.

Paper Presented at the 5th European Space Debris Conference,
Darmstadt Germany, March 30 - April 2 2009


THE KEYSTONES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION SPACE POLICY
UP TO 2020 AND BEYOND
approved by the PRESIDENT of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION, April, 2008
 
Top Priorities of the Russian Federation Space Activity

Deployment of orbital satellite groupings for supporting communications, TV and radio broadcasting, navigation, ERS, hydrometeorology, basic space research, defense, thus satisfying the national security, social, economic and science sectors requirements as a result of the space activity implemented at the target level.

Assured space access and autonomy of the Russian Federation space activity within the whole range of the missions to be realized owing to construction of a launch site on the countrys territory for operating science- and economy-oriented SC

Fulfillment of international obligations including the ISS commitments, completion of the ISS Russian Segment buildup and enhancement of its scientific application payoff

Exploration of Solar system planets and celestial bodies focused on obtaining profound knowledge about the surrounding world, utilizing extraterrestrial resources, studying the Earth climate evolution mechanisms, searching for exobiota

DYNAMICS OF LAUNCHES IN RUSSIA AND IN OTHER STATES AND ORGANIZATIONS
RUSSIAN LAUNCHES IN 2008

/ Type of Launcher Accelerating Engine Number of Launches Type of Orbit
1 Soyuz-FG - 2 Circular
2 Soyuz-FG Fregat 1 Circular
3 Soyuz-U - 5 Circular
4 Soyuz-2.1b - 1 GEO
5 Proton-M Briz-M 7 GEO
6 Proton-M DM-2 2 Circular
7 Proton-K DM-3 1 GEO
8 Kosmos-3M - 3 Circular
9 Dnepr - 2 Circular
10 Zenit-3SLBDM-SLB 1 GEO
11 Rokot Briz-KM 1 Circular
12 Molniya-M - 1 Circular
Total number: 27
ROSCOSMOS ACTIVITY IN SPACE DEBRIS MITIGATION

The main measures to mitigate space debris generation :
  • Proton and Soyuz stages propellant tank pressure release and fuel depletion;
  • No structure elements separated from the DM-3 booster remaining on orbit; after booster separation from the SLV the medium adaptor is jettisoned in open reference orbit; the booster is safely removed from the spacecraft to exclude accidental in-orbit collisions; residual propellant and pressurization gas depletion from the propellant tanks and sustainer pipelines after SC orbit insertion; helium release from the sustainer submerged cylinders; onboard storage battery discharge after mission completion;
  • No small-size operating elements remaining in the near-earth space after Briz-M booster separation; release of residual fuel and gases from the additional propellant tank at its separation from the Briz-M booster into the near-earth space environment;
  • The Dnepr SLV upper stage structure prevents pollution of the near-earth space with small-size operating elements (exp5losive bolts, separation system elements and elements of other fittings remain inside the stage); at the end of a mission propellant components are burnt out for passivation;
  • The Kosmos-3M SLV upper stage SC separation push-off springs have been modified in order to prevent ejection of fragments generated at their operation into the near-earth space environment.

The Russian Federation is governed while implementing the space activity by the UN Guidelines on Space Debris Generation Mitigation. It may be exemplified by the efforts we undertake to limit SC long-term existence in the GSO vicinity after the SC scheduled lifetime termination as applied to the GSO Express-A spacecraft. Currently the guaranteed 7-year service life of two out of the three Express-A spacecraft has expired. These are: Express-A2 (#2000-013A) launched March 12 2000 and Express-A3 (#2000-031A) launched June 24 2000.

Two GSO spacecraft will be deorbited after their replacement with the new-generation Express-AM satellites. The propulsive mass reserve for deorbiting would enable to raise the orbit perigee by at least 200 km as prescribed by the international requirements. A special procedure for deorbiting the Express-A3 SC (#2000-031A) has been developed. Since this spacecraft is kept on the western boundary of the Russian control stations visibility zone (in its orbital position 110 W) it will be moved at first to the east to be within the Russian control stations visibility zone, then its orbit will be corrected for perigee elevation.

Such a strategy would enable to complete the finishing passivation operations after deorbiting in compliance with the 5th guiding principle of the document Minimization of Probability of Fragmentations Generation caused by Energy Budget after Mission Implementation.
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC OPTICAL NETWORK (ISON)

TYPICAL VIEW OF PROTECTED STRUCTURE (NO PENETRATION)

Experimental data comparison on ballistic limit curves of ISS US segment shielding MOD-1 and TSNIIMASH shielding
DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN STANDARDS ON SPACE DEBRIS MITIGATION

NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
General Requirements to Spacecraft and Orbital Stages on Space Debris Mitigation
 
General requirements to design and operation of spacecraft and orbital stages to assure space debris mitigation .
 
(Came into force 2009/01/01)

  • The common requirements to space vehicles are established to limit the space debris population in Near Earth Space
  • The requirements should be applied to new designed and updated space vehicles of different type: civil, science (including deep space investigations), commercial, military and manned missions.
  • Application of the requirements of the standard must be putted into practice during the all stages of the life of space means: designing, manufacturing, launch, operation and utilization.
  • The requirements of the NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION were harmonized with the UN Mitigation Guidelines
THE IADC TEST RE-ENTRY CAMPAIGN 2008

Tested object - USA Early Ammonia Servicer, 98067BA

  1. Roscosmos was the party in the 10-th test re-entry campaign:
    • 19 TLE data were produced by Russian Space Surveillance System;
    • 27 re-entry predictions were produced by Mission Control Center.
  2. Predicted re-entry time: 2008/11/03, 05:05 UTC.
  3. .
  4. Roscosmos re-entry prediction is in a fine correlation with the official data.
DANGEROUS APPROACHE OF SPACE OBJECT WITH ISS 2008/08/27

THE 26-th MEETING OF THE INTER-AGENCY SPACE DEBRIS COORDINATION COMMITTEE (IADC) MOSCOW - 2008

SUMMARY

  • The Russian Federation is devoted to the international efforts on space debris problem resolution and is already implementing practical steps on space debris mitigation on a voluntary basis within its own national mechanisms taking into account the UN Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines.
  • The Russian NATIONAL STANDARD General Requirements to Spacecraft and Orbital Stages on Space Debris Mitigation came into force. The requirements of the STANDARD were harmonized with the UN Mitigation Guidelines.
  • The Russian Federation believes that UN Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines would increase mutual understanding on acceptable activities in space and thus enhance stability in space-related matters and decrease the likelihood of friction and conflict.

Thanks for your attention!

3 2009


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